In particular there have been a host of devices which have attempted to mimic co-located behaviours at a distance including hand-holding, The success of these technologies has, so far, been limited.
Couples who have routine, strategic relational maintenance behaviors, and take advantage of social media can help maintain a long-distance relationship.
"Prospective behaviors, such as telling the partner goodbye, which addresses anticipated separation; introspective behaviors, which is communication when the partners are apart; and retrospective behaviors which are basically talking to each other face to face, which reaffirms connection after separation." (Dindia, & Emmers-Sommer, 2006).
Pew Internet (2004) asserts that 79% of adult respondents from the United States reported using the Internet for communication with family and friends.
Also, Pew Internet (2002a) states that because of new technologies, college students will have greater social ties with their friends than their family members.
Therefore, examining email among college students helps explore how the Internet is affecting college students emotionally and socially.
The partners of military personnel deployed abroad experience a significant amount of stress, before and during the deployment.
Maintenance behaviors can be separated into seven categories: assurances in relation to love and commitment in the relationship, openness in sharing their feelings, conflict management, positive interactions, sharing tasks, giving advice to their partner, and using social networks for support (Dainton, 2000; Stafford, Dainton, & Haas, 2000).